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  •                         Between these two strong personalities both loaded of important responsabilities, the first leading France, European power, and the other, at the top of one dominating island, from an economic, industrial and political point of view, the United Kingdom, the relations weren't always hearty. In fact, when these two stastesmen met at each other for the first time in June 1940, it passed very well, francophile Churchill supported his "colleague", proclaiming that he was his partner in his fight against Nazism ( the 28th of June in 1940)...Then, they gave proof of solidarity at each other, but from summer 1941, many elements, like the entry of the United States of America in the war, damage this beginning of promising link...At first, old colonial rivalries, especially about Syria and Lebanon bore their relationship: France is, in those day, a weak country, which doesn't manage to assert itself politically, and de Gaulle, very impregnated by nationalism, defends French interests and reporach UK to derive profit from this weakness. Then, poses the problem that represents the coming of the powerful American ally: indeed, Franck Roosevelt strove to announce the definitive defeat of France, and to consider de Gaulle as an arrogant and worthless head of state. And Churchill resigned himself to follow American trend, at the expense of an alliance with the Hexagon and of the General's friendship... The dissension just begins, punctuated by two keen episodes in 1942 during the disembarkments, who led to a terrible argument between de Gaulle and Churchill...However, teared between his duty of fidelity towards Roosevelt ans his desire of a solid link with the General, Churchill continues to admire this latter for his incredible personality, his energy, his temperament...On the 11th of November in 1944, their descent of the Champs-Elysées side by side mark for a time their reconciliation; reconciliation strengthened with their common perception of the Soviet threat. But a decade later, although Churchill won't the First minister anylonger, relations between these two European powers will deteriorate, with the obstinate refusal of de Gaulle to let the United Kingdom come into the EEC; refusal which lasted for almost twenty years...


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  • I feel European... Why?

    I'm going to explain  it now.

     

     

    Being European is first a geopolitical aspect:

    • We all live on the same continent (in a temperate country)

    • We all have the same cultural roots ( Greek and Roman civilization)

    • We all have the same religious foundation: Christianism

    • During the history there were moving of population (migration, invasion...)

    All these factors have created a European spirit.

     

     

    But:

    • Languages are indeed extremely different, they are coming from more than four different roots and are factors of divisions inside Europe.

    • Even the borders of Europe are discussed. Some think Europe should include Russian, some Turkey and some prefer to stop to the borders of community.

     

     

     

    Now being European is also a Cultural and Political aspect:

    • All European countries are under democratie and it's a very important topic for European people.

    • We have very close standards of life.

    • We share the same way of life (music, movies, culture...).Encouraged by program like Erasmus who has the aim to develop the European Identity.

     

     

     

    Nether the less, I'm going to conclued with a small joke:

     

    What will be the European paradise?

    You are welcome by an English.

    A French will shake the meal.

    An Italian will make the ambiance.

    And a German manage the other all.

     

     

    But what will be hell?

    You are welcome by a French.

    An English man make the food.

    A German the ambiance.

    And an Italian managed every thing...

     

     


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  •  

     

    Robert Schuman was born in 1886 in Luxembourg.He was considère to be one of the founding fathers of european building.
    He lived in Alsace Lorraine .His father was a french citizen and his mother was an Allemand citizen. He was educated at the Athénée. After graduation he became lawyer and he decided to install his office in Metz in 1912.
    In 1919 he became a french citizen and he was elected as deputy to parliement. In 1939 the second War World arrived and he was named under secretary of State for refugies. On July 10th, 1940, with 568 other parliamentarians it votes for « full powers » in the field marshal Pétain. Back in Lorraine, it was stopped by Gestapo and put in secret in the prison of Metz, then transferred to Neustadt in Love-Palatinate on April 13th, 1941. It gets away and succeeds in joining the free zone in August, 1942 by way of the abbey of Ligugédans the Vienne.
    It to have one of the négociateurs big to reject all major treaties of the end of the Second World war

    It was in this title that he offered, by his Statement of the 9 may 1950, to put the French-German production of coal and steel under a High common Authority, in an organization opened by the participation of other countries of Europe. This proposal will draw away the creation of the Community european
    From 1958 at 1960, he was the 1st President of the European Parliament who awards him, at the end of it’s mandate, the title of "Father of Europe". He lived policy in 1962 and died in 77 years on September 4th, 1963 to him in Scy-Chazelles near Metz, in Lorraine.
     

     

     

    Dakhli Bouchra

    1S10


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  • I)The different Treaties
    a)Treaty wich etablished the European Coal and Steel Community(E.C.S.C)(1951)
    Signed in Paris on April 18th, 1951, this treaty etablished The European Coal and Steel Community(E.C.S.C)  had the modest aim of centralised control of the previously national coal and steel industries of its member states, was declared to be "a first step in the federation of Europe". The founding members of the Community were Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and West Germany.

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    b)Treaty of Rome(1957)
    Two additional communities were created in 1957: the European Economic Community (EEC) establishing a customs union and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) for cooperation in developing nuclear energy.

    c)Merger Treaty(1965)

    The Merger Treaty (also called Brussels Treaty) was Signed in Brussels on 8 April 1965. This Treaty combined rhe executive bodies of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), European Atomic Energy Community( Euratom) and the European Economic Community (EEC) into a single institutional structure. This Treaty is regarded by some as the real begining of the modern European Union. 

    d)The singular European Act (SEA)(1986)

    The goal of this treaty was to remove remaining barriers between countries, increase harmonization, increasing the competitiveness of European countries. It reformed the operating procedures of the institutions (which then had 12 members, rather than 6 as initially) and Qualified Majority Voting was extended to new areas. An aim was set of a single market by 1992.
    The act introduced European Political Cooperation, forerunner of the European Union's Common Foreign and Security Policy.
    The act was signed at Luxembourg on February 17, 1986, and at The Hague on February 28, 1986.

    e)The treaty of Maastricht(1992)

    The Maastricht Treaty (formally, the Treaty on European Union, TEU) was signed on 7 February 1992 in Maastricht, It created the European Union and led to the creation of the Euro(€)

    f)The Treaty of Amesterdam

    The Treaty of Amsterdam amending the Treaty of the European Union, the Treaties establishing the European Communities and certain related acts, commonly known as the Amsterdam Treaty, was signed on October 2, 1997, it made substantial changes to the Treaty on European Union.The Amsterdam Treaty meant a greater emphasis on citizenship and the rights of individuals, more democracy in the shape of increased powers for the European Parliament, a new title on employment, a Community area of freedom, security and justice, the beginnings of a common foreign and security policy (CFSP) and the reform of the institutions in the run-up to enlargement.

    g)The Treaty of Nice

    The Nice Treaty was signed by European leaders on 26 February 2001 and came into force on 1 February 2003. It amended the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty of Rome. The Treaty of Nice reformed the institutional structure of the European Union to withstand eastward expansion, a task which was originally intended to have been done by the Amsterdam Treaty, but failed to be addressed at the time.
    The entrance into force of the treaty was in doubt for a time, after its initial rejection by Irish voters in a referendum in June 2001. This referendum result was reversed in a subsequent referendum held a little over a year later.

    h)Informations

    All this Treaties  entered into force one year later their  signatures .

    II)The succesives extensions of EU

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    The European Union (EU) was originally created by six founding states in 1958, but has grown to its current size of 27 member states. There were six successive enlargements during this period (with the largest occurring on May 1, 2004, when 10 member states joined):- the United Kingdom, Ireland and Denmark in 1973

                              -Greece in 1981

                              -Spain and Portugal in 1986

                              -Austria, Finland and Sweden in 1995

                              -Estovia,Latvia, Lithuania,Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia,Hungary, Slovenia,Malta and Cyprus in 2004

                              -Bulgaria and Romania in 2007
    All the extensions were made made by a treaty which must be signed by all the states in the EU, Norway have been refused twice in 1972 and 1994.

    G.L.C 1S10

     


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